The Communication Regulatory Authority of Namibia is mandated to undertake market studies to determine if there are dominant operators in the telecommunications market. CRAN’s approach to previous market studies, in 2012 and 2016 has been one of minimal intervention with only two markets defined at the time: telecommunication services, and broadcasting services. In the previous studies dominance was only declared for the telecommunications service market, with MTC, Leo, and Telecom Namibia declared dominant. The 2016 market study defined four priority markets and a more focused approach was considered. Helene Vosloo, the Head Economics and Sector Research at CRAN, while explaining the study, told Future Media News that this approach was challenged by written submissions from licensees.