The 23 migrants who died last month in a mass attempt to enter the Spanish enclave of Melilla from Morocco likely suffered “mechanical asphyxiation”, when a force or object prevents a person from breathing, and died of “suffocation”, the state-backed National Human Rights Council of Morroco has said. The United Nations, the African Union and independent rights groups have meanwhile denounced the use of excessive force by Moroccan and Spanish security personnel, while several rights organisations have called for an independent probe and condemned authorities on both sides of the border for excessive use of force.