The State of the Climate in Africa 2019 report warns that increasing temperatures and sea levels, changing precipitation patterns and more extreme weather are threatening human health and safety, food and water security and socio-economic development on the continent. Among others, key risks to agriculture include reduced crop productivity associated with heat and drought stress and increased pest damage, disease damage, and flood impacts on food system infrastructure, resulting in serious adverse effects on food security and on livelihoods at the regional, national and individual household levels. Increases in temperature and changes in rainfall patterns also significantly affect population health across Africa, as warmer temperatures and higher rainfall increase habitat suitability for biting insects and the transmission of vector-borne diseases such as dengue fever, malaria and yellow fever.