About 200 000 Zimbabweans will need to apply for different kinds of visas or face deportation from South Africa at the end of the year as the Zimbabwean Exemption Permit is set to lapse. The move, which some experts say may be an attempt by the government to placate voters before national elections in three years, has been heavily criticized, including by the Refugee and Migrant Rights Programme at Lawyers for Human Rights in Johannesburg, which warned it will result in a humanitarian disaster.